Notions cycle terminal

The four notions you have to know for the oral exam are:

  • Places and forms of power: « In politics and social science, power is the ability to influence the behavior of people. In order to live together members of a community accept rules, regulations, laws. This helps to create social cohesion but can also lead to conflicts and tensions. Even when authority seems absolute, there are always counter-powers which question it, aim at limiting its excesses and resist it. » (
  • Spaces and exchanges: « This notion deals with the geographical and symbolic areas that all societies occupy and the interactions between men and different societies. Our world is built on the exploration and conquest of new spaces. The different cultural, economic, sociological and language interactions have shaped and characterised our modern-day world. » (
  • The idea of progress: « The idea of progress can be defined as an improvement, a development or a change – a technical, scientific or social advance which contributes to making the world a better place. » (
  • Myths and heroes: « A myth can be defined as a story about gods or heroes, it can  be a popular belief or a tradition or a false notion. A hero can be a   mythological figure, a person who is admired for his or her achievements, a superhero or maybe a role model or an icon. » (

Now, here are the themes we have studied or will study this year and the notion they refer to (I also added a few extra themes if you want to enrich your argumentation):

  1. Places and forms of power: the cost of universitythe power of the mediathe fight against oppression and segregation in the US (Who had the power? How was it used? Against whom?) – the Civil Rights movement (power of people like Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King or Malcolm X? What power were they fighting against?) – artistic power (what power can songs, novels or paintings have? What can they change? ex: Imagine, John Lennon – Guernica, Pablo Picasso – Iron Man, Black Sabbath – Johnny Got His Gun, Dalton Trumbo [book] or One, Metallica)
  2. Spaces and exchanges: immigration to the USAmuseum restitution
    trade (is it used by everyone? Is it the same in every country?) – the Internet and social networks (what is the nature of these exchanges? How do relationshops evolve?) – globalization (are we all the same now? Is there one culture? Has the world become « a small village »?)
  3. The idea of progress: tech-less worldtelecommutingrobots (what problems can they cause? What if they are too intelligent? What can be their positive impacts?) – social progress (evolution of women’s rights, children’s rights, minorities’ rights?) – the Internet (what are the limits?)
  4. Myths and heroes: the Queenwar heroesBritish characterssuperheroes (why do we need them? How do they represent or not our societies?) – Anglo-Saxon myths (King Arthur: is he still important today? Why? – the Loch Ness monster: why was it important for Scotland? What image does it give?)

I hope this (very short) article will help you! If you need some clarifications just let me know.

Here’s a Totoro to make you feel good:




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